Learning mathematics creates opportunities for and enriches the lives of all Australians. The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics provides students with essential mathematical skills and knowledge in number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. It develops the numeracy capabilities that all students need in their personal, work and civic life, and provides the fundamentals on which mathematical specialties and professional applications of mathematics are built.

Mathematics has its own value and beauty and the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics aims to instil in students an appreciation of the elegance and power of mathematical reasoning. Mathematical ideas have evolved across all cultures over thousands of years, and are constantly developing. Digital technologies are facilitating this expansion of ideas and providing access to new tools for continuing mathematical exploration and invention. The curriculum focuses on developing increasingly sophisticated and refined mathematical understanding, fluency, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. These proficiencies enable students to respond to familiar and unfamiliar situations by employing mathematical strategies to make informed decisions and solve problems efficiently.

The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics ensures that the links between the various components of mathematics, as well as the relationship between mathematics and other disciplines, are made clear. Mathematics is composed of multiple but interrelated and interdependent concepts and systems which students apply beyond the mathematics classroom. In science, for example, understanding sources of error and their impact on the confidence of conclusions is vital, as is the use of mathematical models in other disciplines. In geography, interpretation of data underpins the study of human populations and their physical environments; in history, students need to be able to imagine timelines and time frames to reconcile related events; and in English, deriving quantitative and spatial information is an important aspect of making meaning of texts.

The
curriculum anticipates that schools will ensure all students benefit from
access to the power of mathematical reasoning and learn to apply their
mathematical understanding creatively and efficiently. The Mathematics
curriculum provides students with carefully paced, in-depth study of critical
skills and concepts. It encourages teachers to help students become
self-motivated, confident learners through inquiry and active participation in
challenging and engaging experiences.

## Prep

At this year level:

- understanding includes connecting names, numerals and quantities
- fluency includes readily counting numbers in sequences, continuing patterns and comparing the lengths of objects
- problem-solving includes using materials to model authentic problems, sorting objects, using familiar counting sequences to solve unfamiliar problems and discussing the reasonableness of the answer
- reasoning includes explaining comparisons of quantities, creating patterns and explaining processes for indirect comparison of length.

## Year 1

At this year level:

- understanding includes connecting names, numerals and quantities, and partitioning numbers in various ways
- fluency includes readily counting number in sequences forwards and backwards, locating numbers on a line and naming the days of the week
- problem-solving includes using materials to model authentic problems, giving and receiving directions to unfamiliar places, using familiar counting sequences to solve unfamiliar problems and discussing the reasonableness of the answer
- reasoning includes explaining direct and indirect comparisons of length using uniform informal units, justifying representations of data and explaining patterns that have been created.

## Year 2

At this year level:

- understanding includes connecting number calculations with counting sequences, partitioning and combining numbers flexibly and identifying and describing the relationship between addition and subtraction and between multiplication and division
- fluency includes readily counting numbers in sequences, using informal units iteratively to compare measurements, using the language of chance to describe outcomes of familiar chance events and describing and comparing time durations
- problem-solving includes formulating problems from authentic situations, making models and using number sentences that represent problem situations, and matching transformations with their original shape
- reasoning includes using known facts to derive strategies for unfamiliar calculations, comparing and contrasting related models of operations and creating and interpreting simple representations of data.

## Year 3

At this year level:

- understanding includes connecting number representations with number sequences, partitioning and combining numbers flexibly, representing unit fractions, using appropriate language to communicate times, and identifying environmental symmetry
- Fluency includes recalling multiplication facts, using familiar metric units to order and compare objects, identifying and describing outcomes of chance experiments, interpreting maps and communicating positions
- problem-solving includes formulating and modelling authentic situations involving planning methods of data collection and representation, making models of three-dimensional objects and using number properties to continue number patterns
- reasoning includes using generalising from number properties and results of calculations, comparing angles and creating and interpreting variations in the results of data collections and data displays.

## Year 4

At this year level:

- understanding includes making connections between representations of numbers, partitioning and combining numbers flexibly, extending place value to decimals, using appropriate language to communicate times and describing properties of symmetrical shapes
- fluency includes recalling multiplication tables, communicating sequences of simple fractions, using instruments to measure accurately, creating patterns with shapes and their transformations and collecting and recording data
- problem-solving includes formulating, modelling and recording authentic situations involving operations, comparing large numbers with each other, comparing time durations and using properties of numbers to continue patterns
- reasoning includes using generalising from number properties and results of calculations, deriving strategies for unfamiliar multiplication and division tasks, comparing angles, communicating information using graphical displays and evaluating the appropriateness of different displays.

## Year 5

At this year level:

- understanding includes making connections between representations of numbers, using fractions to represent probabilities, comparing and ordering fractions and decimals and representing them in various ways, describing transformations and identifying line and rotational symmetry
- fluency includes choosing appropriate units of measurement for calculation of perimeter and area, using estimation to check the reasonableness of answers to calculations and using instruments to measure angles
- problem-solving includes formulating and solving authentic problems using whole numbers and measurements and creating financial plans
- reasoning includes investigating strategies to perform calculations efficiently, continuing patterns involving fractions and decimals, interpreting results of chance experiments, posing appropriate questions for data investigations and interpreting data sets.

## Year 6

At this year level:

- understanding includes describing properties of different sets of numbers, using fractions and decimals to describe probabilities, representing fractions and decimals in various ways and describing connections between them, and making reasonable estimations
- fluency includes representing integers on a number line, calculating simple percentages, using brackets appropriately, converting between fractions and decimals, using operations with fractions, decimals and percentages, measuring using metric units and interpreting timetables
- problem-solving includes formulating and solving authentic problems using fractions, decimals, percentages and measurements, interpreting secondary data displays and finding the size of unknown angles
- reasoning includes explaining mental strategies for performing calculations, describing results for continuing number sequences, explaining the transformation of one shape into another and explaining why the actual results of chance experiments may differ from expected results.

## Year 7

At this year level:

- understanding includes describing patterns in uses of indices with whole numbers, recognising equivalences between fractions, decimals, percentages and ratios, plotting points on the Cartesian plane, identifying angles formed by a transversal crossing a pair of lines, and connecting the laws and properties of numbers to algebraic terms and expressions
- fluency includes calculating accurately with integers, representing fractions and decimals in various ways, investigating best buys, finding measures of central tendency and calculating areas of shapes and volumes of prisms
- problem-solving includes formulating and solving authentic problems using numbers and measurements, working with transformations and identifying symmetry, calculating angles and interpreting sets of data collected through chance experiments
- reasoning includes applying the number laws to calculations, applying known geometric facts to draw conclusions about shapes, applying an understanding of ratio and interpreting data displays.

## Year 8

At this year level:

- understanding includes describing patterns involving indices and recurring decimals, identifying commonalities between operations with algebra and arithmetic, connecting rules for linear relations with their graphs, explaining the purpose of statistical measures and explaining measurements of perimeter and area
- fluency includes calculating accurately with simple decimals, indices and integers; recognising equivalence of common decimals and fractions including recurring decimals; factorising and simplifying basic algebraic expressions and evaluating perimeters and areas of common shapes and volumes of three-dimensional objects
- problem-solving includes formulating and modelling practical situations involving ratios, profit and loss, areas and perimeters of common shapes and using two-way tables and Venn diagrams to calculate probabilities
- reasoning includes justifying the result of a calculation or estimation as reasonable, deriving probability from its complement, using congruence to deduce properties of triangles, finding estimates of means and proportions of populations.

## Year 9

At this year level:

- understanding includes describing the relationship between graphs and equations, simplifying a range of algebraic expressions and explaining the use of relative frequencies to estimate probabilities and of the trigonometric ratios for right-angle triangles
- fluency includes applying the index laws to expressions with integer indices, expressing numbers in scientific notation, listing outcomes for experiments, developing familiarity with calculations involving the Cartesian plane and calculating areas of shapes and surface areas of prisms
- problem-solving includes formulating and modelling practical situations involving surface areas and volumes of right prisms, applying ratio and scale factors to similar figures, solving problems involving right-angle trigonometry and collecting data from secondary sources to investigate an issue
- reasoning includes following mathematical arguments, evaluating media reports and using statistical knowledge to clarify situations, developing strategies in investigating similarity and sketching linear graphs.

## Year 10

At this year level:

- understanding includes applying the four operations to algebraic fractions, finding unknowns in formulas after substitution, making the connection between equations of relations and their graphs, comparing simple and compound interest in financial contexts and determining probabilities of two- and three-step experiments
- fluency includes factorising and expanding algebraic expressions, using a range of strategies to solve equations and using calculations to investigate the shape of data sets
- problem-solving includes calculating the surface area and volume of a diverse range of prisms to solve practical problems, finding unknown lengths and angles using applications of trigonometry, using algebraic and graphical techniques to find solutions to simultaneous equations and inequalities and investigating independence of events
- reasoning includes formulating geometric proofs involving congruence and similarity, interpreting and evaluating media statements and interpreting and comparing data sets.

## Year 11 and 12 General Mathematics

Unit 1 has three topics: ‘Consumer arithmetic’, ‘Algebra and matrices’, and ‘Shape and measurement’. ‘Consumer arithmetic’ reviews the concepts of rate and percentage change in the context of earning and managing money, and provides fertile ground for the use of spreadsheets. ‘Algebra and matrices’ continues the F-10 study of algebra and introduces the new topic of matrices. ‘Shape and measurement’ extends the knowledge and skills students developed in the F-10 curriculum with the concept of similarity and associated calculations involving simple and compound geometric shapes. The emphasis in this topic is on applying these skills in a range of practical contexts, including those involving three-dimensional shapes.

Unit 2 has three topics: ‘Univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process’, ‘Linear equations and their graphs’, and ‘Applications of trigonometry’. ‘Univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process’ develops students’ ability to organise and summarise univariate data in the context of conducting a statistical investigation. . ‘Applications of trigonometry’ extends students’ knowledge of trigonometry to solve practical problems involving non-right-angled triangles in both two and three dimensions, including problems involving the use of angles of elevation and depression, and bearings in navigation ‘Linear equations and their graphs’ uses linear equations and straight-line graphs, as well as linear-piecewise and step graphs, to model and analyse practical situations

Unit 3 has three topics: ‘Bivariate data analysis’, ‘Growth and decay in sequences’, and ‘Graphs and networks’. ‘Bivariate data analysis’ introduces students to some methods for identifying, analysing and describing associations between pairs of variables, including using the least-squares method as a tool for modelling and analysing linear associations. The content is to be taught within the framework of the statistical investigation process. ‘Growth and decay in sequences’ employs recursion to generate sequences that can be used to model and investigate patterns of growth and decay in discrete situations. These sequences find application in a wide range of practical situations, including modelling the growth of a compound interest investment, the growth of a bacterial population or the decrease in the value of a car over time. Sequences are also essential to understanding the patterns of growth and decay in loans and investments that are studied in detail in Unit 4. ‘Graphs and networks’ introduces students to the language of graphs and the way in which graphs, represented as a collection of points and interconnecting lines, can be used to analyse everyday situations such as a rail or social network.

Unit 4
has three topics: ‘Time series analysis’, ‘Loans, investments and annuities’,
and ‘Networks and decision mathematics’. ‘Time series analysis’ continues
students’ study of statistics by introducing them to the concepts and
techniques of time series analysis. The content is to be taught within the
framework of the statistical investigation process. ‘Loans and investments’
aims to provide students with sufficient knowledge of financial mathematics to
solve practical problems associated with taking out or refinancing a mortgage
and making investments. ‘Networks and decision mathematics’ uses networks to
model and aid decision making in practical situations.

## Year 11 and 12 Mathematical Methods

Unit 1 begins with a review of the basic algebraic concepts and techniques required for a successful introduction to the study of functions and calculus. Simple relationships between variable quantities are reviewed, and these are used to introduce the key concepts of a function and its graph. The study of probability and statistics begins in this unit with a review of the fundamentals of probability, and the introduction of the concepts of conditional probability and independence. The study of the trigonometric functions begins with a consideration of the unit circle using degrees and the trigonometry of triangles and its application. Radian measure is introduced, and the graphs of the trigonometric functions are examined and their applications in a wide range of settings are explored.

In Unit 2, exponential functions are introduced and their properties and graphs examined. Arithmetic and geometric sequences and their applications are introduced and their recursive definitions applied. Rates and average rates of change are introduced, and this is followed by the key concept of the derivative as an ‘instantaneous rate of change’. These concepts are reinforced numerically (by calculating difference quotients), geometrically (as slopes of chords and tangents), and algebraically. This first calculus topic concludes with derivatives of polynomial functions, using simple applications of the derivative to sketch curves, calculate slopes and equations of tangents, determine instantaneous velocities, and solve optimisation problems.

In Unit 3, the study of calculus continues by introducing the derivatives of exponential and trigonometric functions and their applications, as well as some basic differentiation techniques and the concept of a second derivative, its meaning and applications. The aim is to demonstrate to students the beauty and power of calculus and the breadth of its applications. The unit includes integration, both as a process that reverses differentiation and as a way of calculating areas. The fundamental theorem of calculus as a link between differentiation and integration is emphasised. Discrete random variables are introduced, together with their uses in modelling random processes involving chance and variation. The purpose here is to develop a framework for statistical inference.

In
Unit 4, the logarithmic function and its derivative are studied. Continuous
random variables are introduced and their applications examined. Probabilities
associated with continuous distributions are calculated using definite
integrals. In this unit students are introduced to one of the most important
parts of statistics, namely statistical inference, where the goal is to
estimate an unknown parameter associated with a population using a sample of
that population. In this unit, inference is restricted to estimating
proportions in two-outcome populations. Students will already be familiar with
many examples of these types of populations.

## Year 11 and 12 Essential Mathematics

Unit 1 provides students with the mathematical skills and understanding to solve problems relating to calculations, applications of measurement, the use of formulas to find an unknown quantity, and the interpretation of graphs. Teachers are encouraged to apply the content of all topics in contexts which are meaningful and of interest to their students. A variety of approaches could be used to achieve this. Two contexts which could be used in this unit are Mathematics and foods and Earning and managing money. However, these contexts may not be relevant for all students, and teachers are encouraged to find a suitable context that will make the mathematical topics of this unit relevant for their particular student cohort.

Unit 2 provides students with the mathematical skills and understanding to solve problems related to representing and comparing data, percentages, rates and ratios, and time and motion. Teachers are encouraged to apply the content of all topics in contexts which are meaningful and of interest to the students. A variety of approaches could be used to achieve this purpose. Two possible contexts which could be used in this unit to achieve this goal are Mathematics and cars and Mathematics and independent living. However these contexts may not be relevant for all students, and teachers are encouraged to find a suitable context that will make the mathematical topics of this unit relevant for their particular student cohort.

Unit 3 provides students with the mathematical skills and understanding to solve problems related to measurement, scales, plans and models, drawing and interpreting graphs, and data collection. Teachers are encouraged to apply the content of all topics in contexts which are meaningful and of interest to the students. A variety of approaches could be used to achieve this purpose. Two possible contexts which could be used in this unit to achieve this goal are Mathematics and design and Mathematics and medicine. However these contexts may not be relevant for all students and teachers are encouraged to find a suitable context that will make the mathematical topics of this unit relevant for their particular student cohort.

Unit 4
provides students with the mathematical skills and understanding to solve
problems related to probability, earth geometry and time zones, and loans and
compound interest. Teachers are encouraged to apply the content of all topics
in contexts which are meaningful and of interest to the students. A variety of
approaches could be used to achieve this purpose. Two possible contexts which
could be used in this unit are Mathematics of Finance and Mathematics of
travelling. However these contexts may not be relevant for all students and
teachers are encouraged to find a suitable context that will make the
mathematical topics of this unit relevant for their particular student cohort.